84 F. average high for July 10. Source: NOAA.
92 F. high temperature on July 10, 2011.
20X. "In fact, the statistics suggest (the Texas/Oklahoma drought/heatwave of 2011) was 20 times more likely to occur because of the current conditions we have with the increasing temperatures related to increasing greenhouse gases." - NCDC Chief Thomas Karl in a PBS Newshour interview Tuesday - details below.
"Every weather event that happens now takes place in the context of a changing global environment," Deputy NOAA Administrator Kathryn Sullivan said in a statement." - from a Christian Science Monitor article below.
* for the latest NOAA Drought Monitor for the USA click here.
"Do the Earth's volcanoes emit more CO2 than human activities? Research findings indicate that the answer to this frequently asked question is a clear and unequivocal "No". Human activities, responsible for a projected 35 billion metric tons (gigatons) of CO2 emissions in 2010 (Friedlingstein et all, 2010) release an amount of CO2 that dwarfs the annual CO2 emissions of all the world's degassing subaerial and submarine volcanoes (Gerlach, 2011)." The preferred global estimates of the authors of these studies range from about 0.15 to 0.26 gigaton per year. The 35-gigaton projected anthropogenic CO2 emission for 2010 is about 80 to 270 times larger than the respective maximum and minimum annual global volcanic CO2 emission estimates. It is 135 times larger than the highest preferred global volcanic CO2 estimate of 0.26 gigaton per year (Marty and Tolstikhin, 1998)."
University of St. Thomas climate scientist John Abraham adds: "A tropical volcano like Pinatubo can cause significant short-term cooling (2-3 years) that will dwarf the impact of emissions during that time....the real impact of volcanoes is not through CO2 emissions. It is through aerosol-particulates. As a rough estimate, each year, all volcanoes worldwide are about equivalent to the CO2 emissions of Florida."
From climate scientist John Cook: "A picture is worth more than 1,000 words. Visually, the largest eruptions over the last half century have had no discernible impact on CO2 levels (in fact, they've slightly decreased the rate of CO2 increase because of the immediate cooling effect." Graph above (and more data) from Skeptical Science.
Paul's Conservation Minnesota Outlook for the Twin Cities and all of Minnesota:
Photo credit above: "In this file photo, Texas State Park police officer Thomas Bigham walks across the cracked lake bed of O.C. Fisher Lake in San Angelo, Texas. The year 2011 brought a record heat wave to Texas and an unusually warm November in England." AP Photo/Tony Gutierrez
"This figure we calculated may not seem particularly significant," says lead author Jan Esper, "however, it is also not negligible when compared to global warming, which up to now has been less than 1°C. Our results suggest that the large-scale climate reconstruction shown by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change likely underestimate this long-term cooling trend over the past few millennia."
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Photo credit above: "A "derecho," a pattern of thunderstorms racing in a straight line, is more common in the American Plains, but one struck the Washington area on June 29, 2012." (Photo credit: U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration).