99 F. high in Madison, Minnesota Tuesday.
32 mph. Peak wind gust yesterday at KMSP.
74 F. average high for September 11.
89 F. high on September 11, 2011.
"The whole issue of climate change is now so intensely politicized and so intensely fought over, if you put a foot wrong in any regards, if you make a claim that can't stand up, it then becomes ammunition in this intense culture battle that we have." - George Marshall, Climate Outreach Information Network, from an NPR story below.
"For most species of trees, droughts, and cool late summer/early fall temperatures bring on fall color, whereas wet weather and warmer late summer/fall temperatures delay fall color. For a few species of trees, early versus late spring also plays a role, since their leaves only last a certain length of time, so that an early spring causes leaves to fall off earlier.
I think we are seeing the effects of the developing drought on trees right now in the Twin Cities area. I don't think the August cool spell was cool enough to affect trees here, but it probably was in northern MN. 8-10 days of temperatures at night in the 40s are needed to trigger fall color development. The urban heat island in large cities has been shown to delay fall color by 1-2 weeks, compared to surrounding areas, and that effect is thought to be due to warmer nights.
It's interesting that we have hardly any fall color development on campus in St. Paul - the lawns here are watered and trees are not under drought stress, but just off campus, unwatered trees are shedding leaves."
* photo credit above: Flickr.
Map credit: Times Picayune.
Photo credit: "The researchers, including Dr. Fredrick Semazzi (pictured), hope to use their new method to improve our understanding of hurricane behavior."
Q: How are hurricanes named and who names them?
A: The first known scientific use of hurricane naming arose in the Pacific during World War II. It was an easy and effective way to distinguish one tropical cyclone from another on the weather maps, said Steve Ackerman, a UW-Madison professor of atmospheric and oceanic sciences and director of the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies. The system was simple and alphabetical: The name of the first storm of the season would begin with A; the second, B; the third, C; and so on.
Naming hurricanes, he added, also gave homesick soldiers a way to recall loved ones. Thus began the practice by predominantly male meteorologists of giving female names to hurricanes. This practice persisted at the National Hurricane Center in Miami until the late 1970s.
Paul's Conservation Minnesota Outlook for the Twin Cities and all of Minnesota:
TODAY: Much cooler- clouds increase, shower possible (steadier rain over far southern MN). Winds: W 10. High: 69
WEDNESDAY NIGHT: Mostly cloudy, more comfortable. Chance of a shower, mainly south of MSP. Low: 52
NPR has the story; here's a clip: "The current poster child for global warming is a polar bear, sitting on a melting iceberg. Some health officials argue the symbol should, instead, be a child. That's because emerging science shows that people respond more favorably to warnings about climate change when it's portrayed as a health issue rather than as an environmental problem. Epidemiologist George Luber at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says the most obvious risk from a warming world is killer heat. A deadly heat wave that struck Chicago in 1995 made many people aware of how disastrous sustained high temperatures can be. About 750 people died from the heat in Chicago, "and that was amplified by the European heat wave of 2003, where we had over 70,000 excess deaths attributable to the heat wave," he says. Today, Luber's job at the CDC is to deal with health issues related to climate change. And heat waves are just part of his portfolio."
Photo credit above: Mike Fisher/AP. "Cook County morgue workers walk between a row of refrigerated trucks outside the morgue in July 1995, when a deadly heat wave struck Chicago."