36 F. high in the Twin Cities Wednesday.
30 F. average high for December 5.
22 F. high temperature on December 5, 2011.
3" snow on the ground in the Twin Cities on December 5, 2011.
6" snow on the ground in the Twin Cities on December 5, 2010.
Significantly colder air arrives by mid-December; highs in the 20s. Another storm late next week may drop a light accumulation; once again the best chance north of the cities.
At this rate Santa may have to ditch the sleigh for a big, red SUV. But don't give up on a white Christmas just yet...
The four coastal observatories will include:
- A Doppler wind profiling radar, which reveals the speed and direction of winds at several altitudes aloft;
- A technique for extracting critical information from wind profiler data — the level in the atmosphere where falling snow turns to rain;
- Global positioning system (GPS) water vapor instruments, which measure the total amount of water vapor above the site; and
- Standard meteorological instruments (relative humidity, temperature, pressure, rain gauge)."
An announcement that sustained winds of 74 mph or higher are expected somewhere within the specified area in association with a tropical, sub-tropical, or post-tropical cyclone. Because hurricane preparedness activities become difficult once winds reach tropical storm force, the warning is issued 36 hours in advance of the anticipated onset of tropical-storm-force winds. The warning can remain in effect when dangerously high water or a combination of dangerously high water and waves continue, even though winds may be less than hurricane force."
1) Building a More Weather and Climate Resilient Society
Hurricane Sandy, which killed 85 people in the U.S. and caused at least $72 billion in damage in New York and New Jersey alone, highlighted the need to bolster the resilience of coastal cities so that they can withstand the increasing threat posed by the 1-2 punch of global warming-related sea level rise and major storms. Steps that may need to be taken include installing sea walls or storm surge barriers to better protect populated areas, as well as potentially retreating from some vulnerable locations that are almost certain to flood again, given current sea level rise projections. It could also involve reforming the federal flood insurance program, which currently provides incentives to rebuild in vulnerable areas..."
Satellite image credit: NASA.
1950: A snowstorm hits Duluth with 23.2 inches of snow in 24 hours, and a storm total of 35.2 inches.
1939: December heat wave. High temperature hits 62 at New London.
* photo above courtesy of WeatherNation TV meteorologist Todd Nelson, who was the one doing the heavy-duty shoveling 2 years ago. It's amazing (at least to me) how Decembers can vary so much from year to year.
* photo above taken near Westerville, Ohio, courtesy of Brian Gustafson.
"JP: When did you begin to actually talk about climate change as part of your job as a broadcast meteorologist?
PD: In the late '90s I began including it in my weather statements.
JP: Was anybody else doing it at that time?
PD: No, no. The pervasive feeling at the time was that … if you even mention the term global warming or climate change you will instantly alienate 30 percent of your audience and they will tune out. So, you know, it's kryptonite.
Every day I would get scores of emails like, "Flaming liberal. You crazy crackpot. Why are you buying into this Al Gore conspiracy? You're going to cripple our economy." It is the equivalent of sticking your finger in the electrical socket. Most of us are conditioned to avoid pain, to avoid controversy. Everybody on television wants to be loved and your contract – whether you're renewed – really depends on your ability to attract an audience. Just by reporting on this you know that you're alienating people with a certain ideology...."
* Hurricane Sandy satellite image above courtesy of NASA.
— Katrina and Sandy. Greater forest fires recall the Colorado Springs fire last June. More droughts — this year’s drought in the Midwest is the worst in more than 50 years. The prediction that glaciers will be gone from Glacier National Park has been moved up by 10 years to 2020, the same year it’s predicted the Arctic Sea will be ice-free in the summer..."
Photo credit above: "A skier glides down a slope in Austria. Climate change threatens to alter winter weather patterns, which would affect beloved outdoor pastimes." Photo by Dominic Ebenbichler/Reuters.
"One possible explanation for these low levels of belief certainty and perceptions of the threat as distant as that of climate change is difficult to perceive directly; `climate’ itself is a statistical abstraction, even though its impacts can be quite tangible. Current theories of cognitive science suggest that learning about abstractions requires analytical information processing, which involves cognitive effort...a scarce commodity, which people expend sparingly. Both low motivation to think about climate change and low ability to comprehend scientific information can impede people’s processing of the charts, graphs and models in the climate scientist’s toolkit.In other words, climate change is hard to really see in one’s daily life, and understanding it requires “analytic information processing”—otherwise known as thinking. That’s not something people have a lot of time, inclination (and perhaps ability) to do..."